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 History of prevention of spreading of infectious diseases into Croatia

We are very proud of our past, i.e. more than seven centuries of the prevention of spreading of infectious diseases into Croatia

Significant outlines only …

  • 6th and 7th century (as early as around 530) Antigue medicine and communal hygiene applied "Regulae St. Benedicti" caput 36." "De infirmis fratribus"
  • The first hospital in the city of Zadar organized on the base of the "Regulae St. benedicti" (559)
  • From 9th to 12th century in Croatia there were 69 Benedictine’s monasteries (mainly along the coast). Alongside of the monasteries the accommodations for the quests were located. The accommodations were equipped with bathrooms, gardens with medical herbs, a pharmacy, drinking water etc. They were the first kind of health station.
  • The first hospitalers (synonyms: St. John’s order, Holly Cross order, Maltese order) in the monastery of St. Peter in Nin alongside which there was a hospital under a protection of pope Urban III (1184)
  • The first pharmacy in the city of Trogir; the first public hospital (1271)
  • Historical facts that led to development of City of Dubrovnik and merging of two settlements, ethnos, economy and language into unique wholeness where all activities were sanctioned by codified Statute of the City (1272). Very early, even before codification of the Statute, the institutions of hygienically sanitary communal establishment appeared in legal, architectural and functional terms, improving over time in accordance with needs of community, commerce and people. Thus the existence of flood surfaces and cisterns (1272) with filters (1304), well or "puč" and technological water (1272), the first gravitational water supply system with desloughing (1437 but still in use), septic holes and sewage draining (1272), the first underground septic system of channels - urban sewage system (1296), draining of precipitation waters (1399), tiling of the city streets (1390), waste removal (1415), sanctions for throwing waste into harbor (1272), regulations of leprosy and leprosariums (1272), Dubrovnik quarantine - unique in the world (1377), lazaret and contumation regulations (1420), special storage of grain reserves (1410-1590) is registered along with the existence of pharmacy (1317), orphanage (1432) and hospital (1347).
  • Decision for the establishment of Dubrovnik quarantine (1377), which was the first economic quarantine in the world

Decisions of Dubrovnik quarantine, Libber viridis, Cap IL, 1377.

  • Building of many lazarets on eastern coast of Adriatic (1377 >) as a barrier for infectious diseases from Middle East to Western Europe and function of sanitary cordon (1728) as the world best administrative sanitary system for protection against import of infectious diseases
  • The programmed construction of under ground stored facilities for wheat in City of Dubrovnik (1410)
  • The first systematic antimalaric asanation (1870)
  • The first hospital disinfection (1874)
  • Foundation of "Sanitation Institute" (1894)
  • Seminars for disinfectors (1921)
  • The first medical entomological laboratory (1922)
  • The introduction of Gambusia holbrooki (1924)
  • Development of pest control (1920-1930) through organizational structure made by dr Štampar who was the person with clear public health conception
  • Organizational forms of mutual linking of institutions into one unit until appearance of DDT (1941-1945)

Due to demanding situation in the field of agricultural products protection in transportation and transfer and general conception of hygienization of premises in accordance with public health doctrine, Government of NR Croatia (1947) founded three state-owned companies for pest control including "Cijanizacija" in Zagreb, "Dezinsekcija" in Rijeka and "Cian" in Split. The seats of these companies were in towns with early developed sanitary approach in accordance with historical sanitary principles for persons, premises, goods and contumations. These towns soon became promoter and seed-plot for development of sister companies throughout ex Yugoslavia.

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